Selected Articles by Alan Berkowitz


Bystander Intervention 


The Social Norms Approach 


Sexual Assault Prevention: Men Against Violence 


Social Justice Issues


Theory and Practice of Prevention





Bystander Intervention

How to Respond to Sexist Remarks.
An overview of effective responses to sexist remarks, published in the Summer 2016 issue of "Voice Male"

Predictors of Sexual Assault Specific Prosocial Bystander Behavior and Intentions
A examination of what predicts menís willingness to intervene to prevent sexual assault, looking at the role of both attitudes and perceptions. Personal attitudes were found to be a stronger predictors on intervention, but perceptions were also important, leading the authors to recommend normative feedback interventions for addressing menís violence.

The Influence of Social Norms on Advancement through Bystander Stages for Preventing Interpersonal Violence
This study evaluated the impact of norm perceptions on an individualís advancing through the different stages of bystander intervention, for a variety of types of violence. Misperceptions were generally correlated with intervention proclivity, along with whether or not a specific form of violence was perceived as a problem. Results differed according to the type of violence examined, suggesting that prevention efforts need to be tailored to the type of violence being addressed.

Bystander Intervention Among College Men: The Role of Alcohol and Correlates of Sexual Aggression
The relationship of men's alcohol use and willingness to intervene to prevent sexual assault was examined in this study. Heavy drinkers were found to be less likely to intervene, but more importantly, was mediated by men's perception of their peer's approval for sexual aggression, providing support for a social norms approach to ending men's violence.

A Web Based Sexual Violence Bystander Intervention for Male College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial
This study evaluated a web-based sexual assault prevention intervention for men (RealConsent) containing six 30-minute modules on consent, communication skills regarding sex, alcohol and male socialization, victim empathy, bystander intervention, and norms correction. At six-month follow-up RealConsent participants were 73% less likely to perpetrate than men in the control group, along with other positive outcomes. (Note: RealConsent has been cited by the Centers for Disease Control as one of only three-evidence based interventions with behavioral outcomes).

Preventing Sexual Aggression among College Men: An Evaluation of a Social Norms and Bystander Intervention Program
A successful rape prevention workshop for men which reduced actual rapes at 3-month follow-up and which had many other positive outcome

Engaging Men as Social Justice Allies in Ending Violence Against Women: Evidence for a Social Norms Approach
An analysis of factors that influence menís willingness to obtain consent and menís willingness to intervene to prevent sexual assault.


The Social Norms Approach

Predictors of Sexual Assault Specific Prosocial Bystander Behavior and Intentions
A examination of what predicts menís willingness to intervene to prevent sexual assault, looking at the role of both attitudes and perceptions. Personal attitudes were found to be a stronger predictors on intervention, but perceptions were also important, leading the authors to recommend normative feedback interventions for addressing menís violence

Bystander Intervention among College Men: The Role of Alcohol and Correlates of Sexual Aggression
The relationship of men's alcohol use and willingness to intervene to prevent sexual assault was examined in this study. Heavy drinkers were found to be less likely to intervene, but more importantly, was mediated by men's perception of their peerís approval for sexual aggression, providing support for a social norms approach to ending men's violence.

The Influence of Social Norms on Advancement through Bystander Stages for Preventing Interpersonal Violence

Bystander Intervention Among College Men: The Role of Alcohol and Correlates of Sexual Aggression
The relationship of men's alcohol use and willingness to intervene to prevent sexual assault was examined in this study. Heavy drinkers were found to be less likely to intervene, but more importantly, was mediated by men's perception of their peer's approval for sexual aggression, providing support for a social norms approach to ending men's violence.

A Web Based Sexual Violence Bystander Intervention for Male College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial
This study evaluated a web-based sexual assault prevention intervention for men (RealConsent) containing six 30-minute modules on consent, communication skills regarding sex, alcohol and male socialization, victim empathy, bystander intervention, and norms correction. At six-month follow-up RealConsent participants were 73% less likely to perpetrate than men in the control group, along with other positive outcomes. (Note: RealConsent has been cited by the Centers for Disease Control as one of only three-evidence based interventions with behavioral outcomes).

Preventing Sexual Aggression among College Men: An Evaluation of a Social Norms and Bystander Intervention Program
A successful rape prevention workshop for men which reduced actual rapes at 3-month follow-up and which had many other positive outcomes persisting at six-month follow-up.

Social Norms Violence Prevention Toolkit
An overview of the social norms approach as a violence prevention strategy, with guidelines for small group norms interventions, media campaigns, and bystander intervention along with case studies and a chapter on the social norms approach and spirituality by Beatrice Berkowitz. Written for the New Jersey Coalition Against Sexual Assault with funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

How College Men Feel About Being Men and Doing the Right Thing
An important and neglected theme in the literature on men is that men feel uncomfortable about themselves as men without knowing that other men feel the same. This misperception of men by men serves to inhibit men from expressing and acting on the desire to "do the right thing." This paper applies a social norms analysis to men's experience and suggest that by revealing the truth about men, men can be empowered to act in ways that are likely to promote health and social justice.

Fostering Healthy Norms to Prevent Violence and Abuse: The Social Norms Approach
An overview of research and theory underlying the social norms approach including recent studies on the role of misperceived norms in fostering violence, and a discussion of the applicability of the social norms approach to child abuse and sexual assault prevention. Chapter 8 in Keith Kaufman, Ed (2010): The Prevention of Sexual Violence: A Practitionerís Sourcebook, NEARI Press.

An Overview of the Social Norms Approach An overview of the research and theory associated with the social norms approach along with a review of challenges to effectiveness.

The Social Norms Approach to Violence Prevention
A case study that accompanied Young Men as Allies in Preventing Violence Against Women (see article in Sexual Assault Prevention section)

The Social Norms Approach: Theory, Research and Annotated Bibliography
Provides a brief overview of research in support of social norms theory, reviews successful social norms interventions at all three levels of prevention (universal, selective and indicated), summarizes different applications of the approach, and makes recommendations for future development of the field. Included is an annotated bibliography of important publications and articles on the social norms approach. Completely revised and expanded in January, 2003. Originally posted on the Higher Education Center Social Norms website.

Engaging Men as Social Justice Allies in Ending Violence Against Women: Evidence for a Social Norms Approach
An analysis of factors that influence menís willingness to obtain consent and menís willingness to intervene to prevent sexual assault.

Applications of Social Norms Theory to Other Health and Social Justice Issues
This chapter explores applications of social norms theory to sexual assault prevention for men, eating disorders, and bystander behavior with respect to second hand effects of high-risk drinking and prejudicial behavior.


Sexual Assault Prevention/Men Against Violence

Difficult Dialogues: Engaging College Men in Sexual Assault Prevention
Strategies for fostering effective discussions among men in sexual assault prevention workshops, using a combination of motivational interviewing and normative feedback about menís misperceptions.

How to Respond to Sexist Remarks.
An overview of effective responses to sexist remarks, published in the Summer 2016 issue of "Voice Male"

Predictors of Sexual Assault Specific Prosocial Bystander Behavior and Intentions: A Prospective Analysis.
A examination of what predicts menís willingness to intervene to prevent sexual assault, looking at the role of both attitudes and perceptions. Personal attitudes were found to be a stronger predictors on intervention, but perceptions were also important, leading the authors to recommend normative feedback interventions for addressing menís violence.

Bystander Intervention among College Men: The Role of Alcohol and Correlates of Sexual Aggression.
The relationship of men's alcohol use and willingness to intervene to prevent sexual assault was examined in this study. Heavy drinkers were found to be less likely to intervene, but more importantly, was mediated by men's perception of their peerís approval for sexual aggression, providing support for a social norms approach to ending men's violence.

The Influence of Social Norms on Advancement through Bystander Stages for Preventing Interpersonal Violence
This study evaluated the impact of norm perceptions on an individualís advancing through the different stages of bystander intervention, for a variety of types of violence. Misperceptions were generally correlated with intervention proclivity, along with whether or not a specific form of violence was perceived as a problem. Results differed according to the type of violence examined, suggesting that prevention efforts need to be tailored to the type of violence being addressed.

Bystander Intervention Among College Men: The Role of Alcohol and Correlates of Sexual Aggression
The relationship of men's alcohol use and willingness to intervene to prevent sexual assault was examined in this study. Heavy drinkers were found to be less likely to intervene, but more importantly, was mediated by men's perception of their peers approval for sexual aggression, providing support for a social norms approach to ending men's violence.

A Web Based Sexual Violence Bystander Intervention for Male College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial
This study evaluated a web-based sexual assault prevention intervention for men (RealConsent) containing six 30-minute modules on consent, communication skills regarding sex, alcohol and male socialization, victim empathy, bystander intervention, and norms correction. At six-month follow-up RealConsent participants were 73% less likely to perpetrate than men in the control group, along with other positive outcomes. (Note: RealConsent has been cited by the Centers for Disease Control as one of only three-evidence based interventions with behavioral outcomes).

Social Norms Violence Prevention Toolkit
An overview of the social norms approach as a violence prevention strategy, with guidelines for small group norms interventions, media campaigns, and bystander intervention along with case studies and a chapter on the social norms approach and spirituality by Beatrice Berkowitz. Written for the New Jersey Coalition Against Sexual Assault with funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Preventing Sexual Aggression among College Men: An Evaluation of a Social Norms and Bystander Intervention Program
A successful rape prevention workshop for men which reduced actual rapes at 3-month follow-up and which had many other positive outcomes persisting at six-month follow-up.

Guidelines for Sanctioning Perpetrators of Sexual Assault.
Hearing and judicial boards must often deal with a confusing array of evidence and perpetrators who do not fit the conventional stereotypes of ďrapists.Ē This paper provides an overview of the different profiles of sexual assault perpetrators, the characteristics of their assaults, and guidelines for sanctioning them. Unpublished Manuscript available from the author.

Fostering Healthy Norms to Prevent Violence and Abuse: The Social Norms Approach
An overview of research and theory underlying the social norms approach including recent studies on the role of misperceived norms in fostering violence, and a discussion of the applicability of the social norms approach to child abuse and sexual assault prevention. The Prevention of Sexual Violence: A Practitionerís Sourcebook, NEARI Press.

An Interview with Alan Berkowitz on Menís Role in Ending Violence Against Women
A wide-ranging interview with Alan conducted in 2005 by the ďCentre for Leadership for WomenĒ in Australia that discusses my philosophy of menís role in violence prevention, reviews different program formats, and explores challenges facing the field.  Also posted on the Center for Leadership for Women website (www.leadershipforwomen.com.au)

Sexual Assault Prevention:  Working with Men to Prevent Violence Against Women
An overview of the field published in 2004 by the Applied Research Forum of the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence that reviews different program formats, the state of the research, menís role in prevention, etc. (www.leadershipforwomen.com.au) 

Sexual Assault Prevention
A brief overview of sexual assault prevention programs for men, written as an entry in Men and Masculinities: A Social, Cultural, and Historical Encyclopedia, M. Kimmel and A. Aronson (eds), ABC-Clio, 2004, VII p. 719-720.

Engaging Men as Social Justice Allies in Ending Violence Against Women: Evidence for a Social Norms Approach
An analysis of factors that influence menís willingness to obtain consent and menís willingness to intervene to prevent sexual assault.

Young Men as Allies in Preventing Violence Against Women: Building Effective Partnerships with Schools 
(with Peter Jaffe, Dean Peacock, Barri Rosenbluth and Carole Sousa) Discusses strategies for forming effective partnerships with schools to engage boys in violence prevention.  Posted on the website of the Family Violence Prevention Fund ( www.endabuse.org/bpi) along with five case studies

The Social Norms Approach to Violence Prevention
A case study that accompanied  Young Men as Allies in Preventing Violence Against Women (see article in Sexual Assault Prevention section)

Campus Based Sexual Assault Prevention: Perspectives and Recommendations from Program Facilitators
Recommendations for effective facilitation strategies in working with men, from a team of facilitators and supervisors who delivered an effective rape-prevention workshop for men evaluated as reducing sexual assaults by 75% after 4-months. (Chapter 17 (p. 287-305) in Pasque, PA & Nicholson, SE: Empowering Women in Higher Education and Student Affairs: Theory, Research, Narratives and Practice from Feminist Perspectives. American College Personnel Association. ISBN 978-1-57922-350-2)

Fostering Men's Responsibility for Preventing Sexual Assault
This book chapter provides a rationale for all-male sexual assault prevention programs along with a summary of literature reviews supporting this conclusion, outlines essential program elements and formats for working with men, and suggests a developmental model for working with men which integrates various approaches. The chapter concludes with recommendations for future research and implications for program design and development.  Available from the American Psychological Association, 800 374-2721, www.apa.org/books/.

Critical Elements of Sexual Assault Prevention and Risk Reduction Programs for Men and Women
Originally published in 2001 as Chapter 3 in C. Kilmartin: Sexual Assault in Context: Teaching College Men About Gender. Republished with the same title by Lawrence Earlbaum Associates in 2005 (ISBN 0-8058-5542-4). Discusses characteristics of effective programs, provides a rationale for terminology (risk reduction/deterrence vs. prevention), and reviews critical elements of sexual assault prevention and risk reduction programs for men and/or women.

Guidelines for Consent in Intimate Relationships
One of the essential components of sexual assault prevention and risk reduction programs is the establishment of clear guidelines for consent. An understanding of the conditions necessary for consent will help prevent individuals from perpetrating unwanted sexual intimacy and will also help bystanders identify risky situations that require intervention. This articled reviews elements of consent and outlines strategies for addressing this topic in workshops published in March/April 2002 (Vol 3, #4) issue of Campus Safety and Student Development.

Applications of Social Norms Theory to Other Health and Social Justice Issues
Chapter 16 in The Social Norms Approach to Preventing School and College Age Substance Abuse, published by Jossey Bass in 2003 (H. Wesley Perkins, Ed.) This chapter explores applications of social norms theory to sexual assault prevention for men, eating disorders, and bystander behavior with respect to second hand effects of high-risk drinking and prejudicial behavior.

Social Justice Issues 

How College Men Feel About Being Men and Doing the Right Thing
An important and neglected theme in the literature on men is that men feel uncomfortable about themselves as men without knowing that other men feel the same. This misperception of men by men serves to inhibit men from expressing and acting on the desire to "do the right thing." This paper applies a social norms analysis to men's experience and suggest that by revealing the truth about men, men can be empowered to act in ways that are likely to promote health and social justice. "Published as Chapter 10 in Masculinities in Higher Education (Eds: Laker and Davis).

Coming Out to my Homophobia and Heterosexism: Lessons Learned in the Journey of an Ally
A personal narrative describing how I have become aware of and struggled with homophobia and heterosexism in my life. Chapter 3 in Deconstructing Heterosexism in the Counseling Professions: A Narrative Approach (JM Croteau, JS Lark, MA Lidderdale & Y Chung, Eds), 2004, Sage Publications Multicultural Aspects of Counseling Series 20.

Engaging Men as Social Justice Allies in Ending Violence Against Women: Evidence for a Social Norms Approach
(with Patricia Fabiano, H Wesley Perkins, Jeff Linkenbach and Christopher Stark).  An analysis of factors that influence menís willingness to obtain consent and menís willingness to intervene to prevent sexual assault, published in 2003 in the Journal of American College Health 52(3):105-112.

Fostering Men's Responsibility for Preventing Sexual Assault
Published as Chapter 7 in: Paul A. Schewe (Ed), Preventing Intimate Partner Violence: Developmentally Appropriate Interventions Across the Lifespan. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2002. This chapter provides a rationale for all-male sexual assault prevention programs along with a summary of literature reviews supporting this conclusion, outlines essential program elements and formats for working with men, and suggests a developmental model for working with men which integrates various approaches. The chapter concludes with recommendations for future research and implications for program design and development.  Available from the American Psychological Association, 800 374-2721, www.apa.org/books/.

Applications of Social Norms Theory to Other Health and Social Justice Issues
Chapter 16 in The Social Norms Approach to Preventing School and College Age Substance Abuse, published by Jossey Bass in 2003 (H. Wesley Perkins, Ed.) This chapter explores applications of social norms theory to sexual assault prevention for men, eating disorders, and bystander behavior with respect to second hand effects of high-risk drinking and prejudicial behavior.


Theory and Practice of Prevention 

Overcoming the Obstacles to Campus Safety: Developing a Comprehensive Approach to Prevention
An overview of the principles and practices of effective, comprehensive prevention as applied to the topic of campus safety, written for Academic Impressions.